“Sustainable Agriculture Models In the Romanian Mountain Area”

  • Best practice guide


  • Pasture water management


    Spring must be protected by a fence, at a distance of approximately 30m, preferably in the upper level to be a greater distance.

    The tank is mounted below the spring, and it must be protected by a fence.

    The tank must be buried so that water does not freeze and it does not come into contact with light.

    The trough should be placed above the level of the tail (so urine and dung would not reach the water)

    Water area should be at least 30 cm/sheep.

    Above the drinker should be placed a bar (stick) of wood to prevent animal crossing over it.

    The water under the trough should not puddle.

    Water excess should be evacuee through a pipe.

    The land area must be dry.

    Lakes, ponds of pasture must be fenced to avoid contamination with feces, urine, parasite eggs to prevent animal illness.

    Animals must have access to clean water especially after milking.


  • Reesiding with prennial herbs the naked surfaces of herbaceous vegetation from pastoral plannings


    On the surfaces without herbaceous vegetation, land surface is mobilized 2-3 cm deep through rake, avoid to work on very wet ground, which does not crumble. It is recommended that leveling and grinding is done with 1-2 days before sowing, so crop residues can dry.



    Grass seeds must be mixed in a bag with sawdust. With a liter of seeds (350 grams) can inoculate 100 square meters (or 35 kg / ha). By mixing the seeds with sawdust on surfaces with fertile soil it provides a more uniform distribution of seeds in the field and a minimum of fertilizers for successful grassing. In the case of large and uniform surfaces following the leveling and surface mobilization by harrowing, will seed with mechanical means, having regard to respect the norm of 35 kg / ha seed grasses. In this case, mixing with fertilizer or sawdust is no longer necessary. On poorly fertile soils, before seeding, apply a minimum of 50 kg / ha nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, respectively 330 kg / ha from chemical fertilizer complex formula 15x15x15.



    After spreading seed manually, using a metal rake, imitating digging, incorporate the said mixture into 1-2 cm soil depth followed by ironing or pressing it down with a hand roller. In the case of mechanized sowing on large areas, the tamping is done the same, mechanized with a smooth roller or ring.  After emergence when the grass is 20 to 30 cm height, must mow or graze on dry land.



  • The overseeding

    Metoda constă din:

    Fencing he place where livestock spend the night, calculating 1 m² per 1 adult sheep or 6 square meters per adult cow or their equivalent for young sheep or cattle usually counting two heads of youth for one adult animal.;

    Standing place 2-3 nights on a meadow without pigs hair (Nardus stricta), 3-4 nights on a meadow with 20-30% Nardus stricta and 4-5 nights on a meadow invaded by over 50% with Nardus stricta;

    Overseeding Surface plot with a mixture of perennial grasses, 2 days before removing the animals and move them to another fencing;

    Herb mixture consists of nine components, namely six grasses and three perennial legumes adapted to different conditions in the mountains

    1 liter weighs 350 grams and seeds 150 square meters

    Quantity that applies to one hectare is 23 kg; 10 acres (1000 m) 2.3 kg and 1 acre (100 square meters) 230 grams of this mixture;

    • The uniform application of grass seeds is ensured with their mixture with sawdust, one part seeds and two parts sawdust, and spread as evenly as possible two night before moving the fencing

    Deadline for successful overseeding is August 15; if this date is exceeded, the sawn should be left for the following year.

    Seeds should be stored in a dry place, protected from pests.

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